Having worked as a storyboard artist for Pixar’s Monsters University and Brave and Paramount Pictures’ The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water, Emma Coats knew a thing or two about telling stories.

In 2012, she tweeted a thread sharing her experience on how Pixar tells its story. The company is known for its acclaimed animated franchises such as Toy Story, Finding Nemo, and Monsters, Inc.

Coats’ tweet has been viewed, shared, and republished countless times. Here are Pixar’s 22 rules of storytelling.


I _ You admire a character for trying more than for their success.

II _ You gotta keep in mind what’s interesting to you as an audience, not what’s fun to do as a writer. They can be very different.

III _ Trying for a theme is important, but you won’t see what the story is actually about til you’re at the end of it. Now rewrite.

IV _ Once upon a time, there was ___. Every day, ___. One day ___. Because of that, ___. Because of that, ___. Until finally ___.

V _ Simplify. Focus. Combine characters. Hop over detours. You’ll feel like you’re losing valuable stuff, but it sets you free.

VI _ What is your character good at and comfortable with? Throw the polar opposite at them. Challenge them. How do they deal?

VII _ Come up with your ending before you figure out your middle. Seriously. Endings are hard; get yours working upfront.

VIII _ Finish your story; let go even if it’s not perfect. In an ideal world, you have both, but move on. Do better next time.?

IX _ When you’re stuck, make a list of what WOULDN’T happen next. Lots of times, the material to get you unstuck will show up.

X _ Pull apart the stories you like. What you want in them is a part of you; you’ve got to recognise it before using it.

XI _ Putting it on paper lets you start fixing it. If it stays in your head, a perfect idea, you’ll never share it with anyone.

XII _ Discount the first thing that comes to mind. And the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th – get the obvious out of the way. Surprise yourself.

XIII _ Give your characters opinions. Passive/malleable might seem likeable to you as you write, but it’s poison to the audience.

XIIII _ Why must you tell THIS story? What’s the belief burning within you that your story feeds off? That’s the heart of it.

XV _ If you were your character, in this situation, how would you feel? Honesty lends credibility to unbelievable situations.

XVI _ What are the stakes? Give us reasons to root for the character. What happens if they fail? Stack the odds against it.

XVII _ No work is ever wasted. If it’s not working, let go and move on – it’ll come back around to be useful later.

XVIII _ You have to know yourself: the difference between doing your best & fussing. Story is testing, not refining.

XVIIII _ Coincidences to get characters into trouble are great; coincidences to get them out of it are cheating.

XX _ Exercise: take the building blocks of a movie you dislike. How d’you rearrange them into what you DO like?

XXI _ What’s the essence of your story? Most economical telling of it? If you know that, you can build out from there

XXII _You gotta identify with your situation/characters; you can’t just write “cool”. What would make YOU act that way?

We loved how Coats broke down the essence of what made Pixar’s stories endearing and impactful. We’ve used some of these pointers when I write or tell brand stories. Did these rules of storytelling resonate with you?